Hummingbirds of the United States: A Photo List of All Species

The Americas are home to 365 species of hummingbirds. Fifteen types of hummingbirds can be found living in the United States, along with nine vagrant species that occasionally wander inside our borders.

Even though hummingbirds might weigh less than your pocket change, don't let their tiny size fool you! These small birds can be feisty and were even considered to be the reincarnations of warriors by the Aztecs. Take Rufous Hummingbirds, for example: They are known to stand their ground against much larger birds and will even chase chipmunks away from their nests.

The International Union for Conservation of Nature lists 28 hummingbird species, or roughly 8 percent, as Endangered or Critically Endangered. To help these and other bird species, American Bird Conservancy employs a multipronged conservation approach that includes protecting birds from agricultural pesticides, promoting responsible cat ownershipworking to decrease glass collisions, and improving habitat management.
Our List

For the purposes of this list, we've used Partners in Flight (PIF) population and conservation data exclusive to the United States and Canada, which do not reflect global numbers for many of these species, along with data from the Cornell Lab of Ornithology. Our taxonomic list includes all regularly occurring types of hummingbirds in the continental United States and Canada.

Rivoli's  HummingbirdRivoli's Hummingbird are one of the many types of hummingbirds found in the United States

U.S. Population Estimate: <5,000
Population Trend: Unknown
Habitat:  Pine-oak forest
Threats: Habitat loss, possibly climate change
Note: 
At 420 to 1,200 beats per minute, the Rivoli's Hummingbird has one of the highest vertebrate heartrates on record.

Blue-throated Mountain-gemBlue-throated Mountain-gem are one of the many types of hummingbirds found in the United States

U.S. Population Estimate: <2,000
Population Trend: Unknown
Habitat:  Pine-oak forest
Threats: Habitat loss, invasive species
Note:
The Blue-throated Mountain-gem is the largest nesting hummingbird in the U.S. and Canada; it weighs about three times more than the Ruby-throated Hummingbird.

Lucifer HummingbirdLucifer Hummingbird in flight

U.S. Population Estimate: <5,000
Population Trend: Decreasing
Habitat:  Desert scrub
Threats: Habitat loss, possibly climate change
Conservation Status: PIF Yellow Watchlist 
Note:
Male Lucifer Hummingbirds visit females during the breeding season, performing courtship displays at the females' nests. This is in contrast to many other hummingbirds that perform courtship displays away from nests.

Ruby-throated Hummingbird Ruby-throated hummingbird

U.S./Canada Population Estimate: 34 million
Population Trend: Increasing
Habitat:  Eastern forest
Threats: Cat predation, glass collisions
Note:
Ruby-throated Hummingbirds have become accustomed to urbanization and have been known to nest in surprising locations, including loops of extension cords, wires, and chains.

Black-chinned HummingbirdBlack-chinned hummingbirds are one of many hummingbirds found in the United States.

U.S./Canada Population Estimate: 7.7 million
Population Trend: Increasing
Habitat:  Western forest
Threats: Cat predation, glass collisions
Note:
The Black-chinned Hummingbird's eggs are smaller than jellybeans!

Anna's Hummingbird Anna's Hummingbird

U.S./Canada Population Estimate: 8.2 million
Population Trend: Increasing
Habitat:  Chaparral shrubland
Threats: Cat predation, glass collisions
Note:
The breeding range for the Anna's Hummingbird was originally exclusive to northern Baja California and southern California; however, this bird's range has expanded thanks to the planting of exotic flowering trees. It now nests north to southern British Columbia.

Costa's HummingbirdCosta's Hummingbird

U.S. Population Estimate: 1.6 million
Population Trend: Decreasing
Habitat:  Desert scrub
Threats: Habitat loss, cat predation
Note:
They breed in the Southwest, but Costa's Hummingbirds have been spotted several times in the Pacific Northwest and have even ventured as far as Alaska and British Columbia.

Broad-tailed HummingbirdBroad-tailed Hummingbird

U.S. Population Estimate: 7.6 million
Population Trend: Decreasing
Habitat:  Western forest
Threats: Cat predation, possibly climate change
Note: Like many hummingbirds of mountainous areas, the Broad-tailed Hummingbird can enter torpor, a slowed metabolic state, on cold nights in order to maintain a body temperature of roughly 54° Fahrenheit.

Rufous HummingbirdRufous Hummingbirds are one of the many types of hummingbirds found in the United States

U.S./Canada Population Estimate: 19 million
Population Trend: Decreasing
Habitat:  Western forest
Threats: Habitat loss, possibly climate change
Conservation Status: PIF Yellow Watchlist 
Note:
The Rufous Hummingbird breeds as far north as southeastern Alaska — the northernmost breeding range of any hummingbird.

Allen's HummingbirdAllen's Hummingbird

U.S. Population Estimate: 1.7 million
Population Trend: Decreasing
Habitat:  Chaparral shrubland
Threats: Habitat loss, cat predation, possibly climate change
Conservation Status: PIF Yellow Watchlist 
Note: 
Even though the Allen's Hummingbird only breeds in a narrow strip along coastal Oregon and California, there are two subspecies; Selasphorus sasin sasin and Selasphorus sasin sedentarius. S. s. sasin winters in Mexico, while S. s. sedentarius (as its name suggests) remains in the U.S.

Calliope HummingbirdCalliope hummingbirds are one of the many types of hummingbirds found in the United States

U.S./Canada Population Estimate: 4.5 million
Population Trend: Decreasing
Habitat:  Western forest
Threats: Cat predation, glass collisions
Note:
The Calliope Hummingbird is the smallest type of hummingbird in the United States and Canada. It weighs roughly the same as a ping pong ball. 

Broad-billed HummingbirdBroad-billed hummingbird

U.S. Population Estimate: 200,000
Population Trend: Unknown
Habitat:  Dry forest
Threats: Cat predation, glass collisions
Note:
During courtship, male Broad-billed Hummingbirds fly in a pendulum-like arc to impress females.

Buff-bellied HummingbirdBuff-bellied Hummingbird

U.S. Population Estimate: 100,000
Population Trend: Unknown
Habitat:  Dry forest
Threats: Cat predation, glass collisions, possibly habitat loss in breeding areas
Note:
Even though their U.S. breeding ground is in South Texas, Buff-bellied Hummingbirds regularly venture toward the northeast, a behavior unique to the species.

Violet-crowned Hummingbird Violet-crowned hummingbird

U.S. Population Estimate: <200
Population Trend: Unknown
Habitat:  Dry forest
Threats: Habitat loss, cat predation, possibly climate change
Note:
The Violet-crowned Hummingbird was first spotted nesting in the U.S. in 1959.

White-eared HummingbirdWhite-eared hummingbird

U.S. Population Estimate: <200
Population Trend: Unknown
Habitat: Pine-oak forest
Threats: Habitat loss, cat predation
Note:
White-eared Hummingbirds have been beloved summer visitors to Arizona since the 1890s. They will sometimes remain near well-maintained feeders for weeks at a time.

Vagrants

A number of hummingbird species can be spotted in the United States and Canada on occasion, outside of their normal range in Mexico, Central America, and the Caribbean. These vagrants can be exciting to see; however, their presence could possibly be linked to climate change.

The following list is a taxonomic catalog of vagrant types of hummingbirds that have been spotted in the United States.

Mexican VioletearThe Mexican Violetear is one of the many species of hummingbirds that can be spotted as vagrants in the United states.

U.S./Canada Population Estimate: N/A
Global Population Trend: Stable
Habitat: Montane forest clearings
Threats: Cat predation, glass collisions
Note:
The Mexican Violetear is known to move nomadically. They have been recorded more than 90 times in Texas and have even been observed as far north as Canada.

Green-breasted MangoGreen-breasted Mango

U.S./Canada Population Estimate: N/A
Global Population Trend: Stable
Habitat: Forest edge and open areas with scattered tall trees
Threats: Cat predation, glass collisions
Note:
There have been at least 20 sightings of the Green-breasted Mango in Texas. This species has been known to venture as far north as Wisconsin.

Plain-capped StarthroatThe Plain-capped Starthroat is one of many vagrant hummingbird species that visits the United States.

U.S./Canada Population Estimate: N/A
Global Population Trend: Stable
Habitat: Arid to semiarid forest and forest edge, thorn forest, and semi-open areas with scattered trees
Threats: Cat predation, glass collisions
Note: 
The Plain-capped Starthroat can appear quite dull; this bird's brilliantly colored throat feathers are only visible under the right light conditions.

Amethyst-throated Mountain-gem Amethyst-throated Mountain-Gem

U.S./Canada Population Estimate: N/A
Global Population Trend: Stable
Habitat: Humid evergreen and pine-oak forest in mountainous areas
Threats: Cat predation, glass collisions, possible habitat loss
Note:
The first recorded sighting of an Amethyst-throated Mountain-gem in the United States occurred in Texas in 2016.

Bahama Woodstar Bahama Woodstar

U.S./Canada Population Estimate: N/A
Global Population Trend: Stable
Habitat: Wooded and scrubby habitats, including gardens
Threats: Glass collisions, cat predation
Note:
The Bahama Woodstar does not usually migrate; however, it has been observed in southeastern Florida.

Bumblebee HummingbirdBumblebee hummingbird

U.S./Canada Population Estimate: N/A
Global Population Trend: Stable
Habitat: Humid evergreen forests in mountains; favors shrubby clearings with banks of flowers 
Threats: Possible habitat loss, glass collisions, cat predation
Note:
The Bumblebee Hummingbird is the second-smallest bird in the world, after Cuba's Bee Hummingbird.

Xantus's HummingbirdXantus's Hummingbird

U.S./Canada Population Estimate: N/A
Global Population Trend: Stable
Habitat:  Scrubby woodland, pine-oak woods in mountains, desert scrub
Threats: Possible habitat loss, glass collisions, cat predation
Note:
Xantus's Hummingbird breeds in the southern portion of Mexico's Baja Peninsula, but has been spotted along the Pacific Coast far north as British Columbia.

Berylline HummingbirdBerylline Hummingbird

U.S./Canada Population Estimate: N/A
Global Population Trend: Stable
Habitat: Mountain forests
Threats: Habitat loss
Note:
Berylline Hummingbirds were first spotted in the U.S. in 1964. They have since become consistent summer visitors to the mountains of southeastern Arizona, and have even been observed nesting there several times.

Cinnamon Hummingbird Cinnamon Hummingbird sticking out its tongue

U.S./Canada Population Estimate: N/A
Global Population Trend: Stable
Habitat: Dry, tropical lowlands
Threats: Habitat loss, possibly climate change
Note:
Like types of hummingbirds, the Cinnamon Hummingbird is known to be aggressive near feeding areas and will defend its territory.

How can I help?

We all can do our part to protect North America's hummingbirds.

American Bird Conservancy and our Joint Venture partners have improved conservation management on 6.4 million acres of U.S. bird habitat — an area larger than the state of Maryland — over the last ten years. This is a monumental undertaking, requiring the support of many, and you can help by making a gift today.

Policies enacted by Congress and federal agencies, such as the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, have a huge impact on America's birds. You can help shape these rules for the better by telling lawmakers to prioritize birds, bird habitat, and bird-friendly measures. To get started, visit ABC's Action Center.

Finally, don't overlook the impact you can have at home. Living a bird-friendly life can have an immediate impact on the birds around you. Doing so can be as easy as adding native plants to your garden, avoiding pesticides, and keeping cats indoors. To learn more, visit our Bird-Friendly Life page.


Kathryn Stonich teaches English for the Community College of Baltimore County and Bryant & Stratton College online. She is an avid backyard birder and advocate for pigeon and dove rescue.
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