If you thought this was a Rufous Hummingbird, you're not far off: The Allen's Hummingbird is very similar to the closely related Rufous Hummingbird, and the two species occasionally hybridize. In fact, female and juvenile Allen's and Rufous Hummingbirds usually cannot be easily distinguished from one another in the field.
How Allen's Hummingbird is Distinctive
Allen's stands apart from Rufous in other ways, though: This species has one of the most restricted breeding and wintering ranges of any U.S.-breeding hummingbird, very unlike the wide-ranging Ruby-throated Hummingbird.
Allen's migratory pattern is also unusual. Males arrive on breeding grounds in the middle of winter, leaving Mexico as early as late fall, and depart breeding grounds as early as late spring.
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"I worked for several seasons at Point Blue Conservation Science at Point Reyes National Seashore," says George Wallace, ABC's Vice President for Oceans and Islands. "It was a sure sign of spring when the first displaying male Allen's showed up in late February, though we had to wait a long time for other neotropical migrants to arrive!"
Male Allen's Hummingbirds on their territory have a spectacular display, starting with a pendulous, shuttling flight and followed by a high-speed, J-shaped dive from about 100 feet. As if the display alone weren't enough, the dive is accompanied by a loud buzz and metallic shriek.
These birds are also extremely aggressive, routing any other male Allen's, other hummingbird species—and even birds several times larger than themselves, such as kestrels and hawks.
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