The Kiwikiu uses its heavy, specialized bill to split branches and extract insect larvae, the bird's primary prey.
Maui Parrotbill map, Cornell Lab of Ornithology

Map courtesy of “Birds of North America”, maintained by the Cornell Lab of Ornithology, Ithaca, NY


The Kiwikiu lives as long as 16 years, choosing a single mate and remaining loyal throughout its life. Reproducing slowly, usually producing only a single chick every year or two, the young birds mature slowly, too. Immature birds remain with their parents from five months to over a year.

Hawai'i's Vanishing Honeycreepers

Like the Palila, this husky bird is just one of Hawai'i's amazing honeycreepers. This bird is so uncommon that it had no Hawaiian name, or its Hawaiian name was lost. The species was thought to be extinct during the first half of the 1900s.

In 2010, in celebration of its heritage and survival, the species, formerly called the Maui Parrotbill, was given the name "Kiwikiu" in a mele inoa, or naming chant. However, the species is still Critically Endangered, and population estimates number approximately 500 birds.

Hawai'i, known to many as a tropical paradise, is also the bird extinction capital of the world. After humans first arrived, 71 species went extinct, and another 24 have vanished since Captain James Cook's “discovery” of Hawai'i in 1778.

Tragically, although it is listed under the Endangered Species Act, this and other native Hawaiian birds receive only a small percentage of the federal and state funds dedicated to endangered species recovery.

Maui and Mosquitoes

The Kiwikiu was once widespread on the islands of Maui and Moloka'i. Now, it's found only within a 19-square-mile area of remote, high-elevation forests on Maui's eastern, or windward, side.

Introduced mosquitoes and other invasive species are a big part of the problem. The non-native mosquitoes carry diseases to which native birds have little to no resistance, including avian malaria and avian pox.

Maui Parrotbill juvenile by Robby Kohley

Kiwikiu juvenile by Robby Kohley

Other non-native species imported to the islands, such as feral cats, feral pigs, rats, and mongooses also take a toll on the Kiwikiu. (Learn more about free-roaming cats and Hawaiian birds.) No list of threats would be complete without mention of habitat loss and climate change, which reduce suitable habitat.

New Kiwikiu Population

The Kiwikiu is one of the top priorities of our Hawai'i Program. In one of our projects, we hope to establish a second population of the species, working with partners including the Hawai'i Department of Forestry and Wildlife, Maui Forest Bird Recovery Project, and the Zoological Society of San Diego.

Get Involved

We welcome all and every effort to help us "bring back the birds." If you would like to make a donation, please click here. Or visit our Get Involved page to learn more about how you can help. Together, we can make a difference for this special bird.

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