Rose-breasted Grosbeak

A rose-breasted grosbeak sitting on a branch

At a Glance

  • Scientific Name: Pheucticus ludovicianus
  • Population: 4.7 million
  • Trend:  Decreasing
  • Habitat: Nests and winters in mature forest, open woodlands, and edge.
Rose-breasted Grosbeak range map by ABC

Rose-breasted Grosbeak range map by ABC

The male Rose-breasted Grosbeak is strikingly beautiful. But it has a gruesome folk name: “cut-throat,” owing to the red swatch across its breast. The name “grosbeak” comes from the French term grosbec, meaning “large beak”— an obvious attribute of this bird, the Black-headed Grosbeak, and others, including the closely related Northern Cardinal.

A fairly common denizen of the deciduous woodlands of northern North America, the Rose-breasted Grosbeak retreats to the tropics in winter, where it is often found in flocks feeding on fruiting trees such as the Gumbo-Limbo.

Wherever it roams, the Rose-breasted Grosbeak seeks the shelter and bounty of leafy tree canopies. It is rarely seen low down, unless visiting a bird bath, stream, or, on occasion, a bird feeder. Typically, the grosbeak remains hidden in the foliage, only grudgingly coming into plain view for birders.

Signature Call

Like the Black-capped Chickadee, Steller's Jay, and many other birds, the Rose-breasted Grosbeak's presence can be easily detected before the bird comes into view, thanks to its distinctive call. In the case of this grosbeak, both genders emit a piercing “eek!” call (see below), which keeps the bird in contact with others of its kind. Although just one note, this call is distinctive, sounding very much like a sneaker squeaking on a polished gymnasium floor.

Like such species as the Bobolink and Summer Tanager, the Rose-breasted Grosbeak exhibits strong sexual dimorphism — the male and female sport very different plumages. One of North America's most distinctive songbirds, the male is a study in contrasts, with a jet-black head, back, and wings, white belly and rump, and of course the triangular red breast patch. In flight, splashes of white flash on wings and tail. The female, on the other hand, resembles a large female Purple Finch — brown-backed and streaky — as does the female of its western “cousin” the Black-headed Grosbeak. Male Rose-breasted and Black-headed Grosbeaks, on the other hand, are entirely different colors, save for their wing patterns and black heads.

Branching Out

The Rose-breasted Grosbeak's breeding range stretches across much of the North American area dominated by temperate deciduous forest, from southern Newfoundland west to southern Northwest Territories in Canada, then down through the Midwest and Northeast of the U.S. In the Appalachians, the breeding range flares southward to Georgia's northern border. During migration, the Rose-breasted Grosbeak is found throughout the U.S. east of the Rockies.

As mentioned above, this bird is an international traveler. It winters from central Mexico south to Ecuador, and some even reach Peru. A good number pass through the Caribbean during migration, and some remain to winter in the Bahamas, Cuba, and on some other islands. In its wintering range, this songbird occurs in many habitats, including in disturbed areas with fruiting trees, on shade-coffee plantations, and along the edges of dry, semi-humid, and humid tropical forests.

Wintering Rose-breasted Grosbeaks are often seen in small groups, often associated with mixed-species feeding flocks. In regions including the highlands of Guatemala, flocks of up to several dozen birds can be seen. This bird is a rare vagrant to the Galápagos Islands, the United Kingdom, and other out-of-range places.

The Rose-breasted Grosbeak's call note, as mentioned above, is a distinctive, sharp “eek.” This bird also has a sweet, robin-like song sometimes characterized as sounding like a tipsy thrush.

Listen here:

(Audio: Jonathon Jongsma, XC178124. Accessible at https://xeno-canto.org/178124. Christopher McPherson, XC599846. Accessible at https://xeno-canto.org/599846.)

(Hear the similar song of the Black-headed Grosbeak, with which the Rose-breasted Grosbeak sometimes hybridizes in parts of the Great Plains.)

Mobile Consumer

Although its thick, seed-cracking bill might lead you to believe this bird is a strict vegetarian, it's very much an omnivore. Up to half of its diet consists of insects, spiders, small snails, and other invertebrates, and like most other songbirds, that's all it feeds its protein-needy young. Adults also seek out a wide range of seasonal plant offerings. These include a bounty of late summer, fall, and wintering-ground berries and small fruits on various trees (including palms and jacarandas), shrubs, and vines. They also consume many seeds, including black oil seeds from feeders, as well as some buds and flowers.

Clutch Performers

Rose-breasted Grosbeaks usually nest in deciduous trees and sometimes high up in large shrubs. There, the female lays one to five, but most often four, greenish blue, rusty-spotted eggs. These are laid in an open-cup nest made of twigs, grasses, stalks, stems, and dead leaves and lined with finer materials including hair. Both male and female Rose-breasted Grosbeaks share incubation, brooding, and feeding duties at the nest. Typically, only one brood is raised, although at times if a brood is lost, a second nesting attempt follows.

Female Rose-breasted Grosbeak by K. Quinn Ferris, Shutterstock

Female Rose-breasted Grosbeak by K. Quinn Ferris, Shutterstock

Unlike many birds, both male and female Rose-breasted Grosbeaks sing — sometimes even while on the nest!

You might think a small songbird might not live long, but one wild Rose-breasted Grosbeak was 12 years old (as recorded after recovery by banders), while a captive individual apparently lived twice that long.

Needing Leafy Landscapes

The Rose-breasted Grosbeak population remains robust but is in decline, according to the conservation consortium Partners in Flight. These birds face several threats: They are often trapped for sale as cage birds throughout their winter range. Also, widespread deforestation, especially where they migrate and winter, likely takes a toll as well.

ABC and partners including Fundación ProAves in Colombia have established reserves, including the Cerulean Warbler Conservation Corridor. These areas provide winter habitat for the Rose-breasted Grosbeak; Cerulean and Golden-winged Warblers; and resident birds like the Gorgeted Wood-Quail.

Rose-breasted Grosbeaks also face the same threats many other bird species do, such as predation from outdoor cats and mortality from collisions with windows and buildings. ABC has a number of programs in place to reduce these threats, including our Cats Indoors program, which encourages pet owners to keep cats and birds safe, and our Glass Collisions program. Explore solutions to keep birds from hitting windows.


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