Long-billed Curlew

"Candlestick Bird"

Long-billed-Curlew, Tim Zurowski, Shutterstock
Long-billed Curlew. Photo by Tim Zurkowski/Shutterstock.

At a Glance

  • Scientific Name: Numenius americanus
  • Population: 140,000
  • Trend:  Decreasing
  • Habitat: Breeds in open grasslands; winters in estuaries, wetlands, and grasslands.


The eye-catching Long-billed Curlew is North America's largest shorebird, but like the Mountain Plover and Buff-breasted Sandpiper, it's very often found away from the shore.

Its genus Numenius is named from the Greek word noumenios, meaning “of the new moon” — bestowed upon curlews because their long, curved bills were thought to resemble a sickle-shaped new moon.

The birds' lengthy bills, longest in females, also engendered some interesting folk names such as "sicklebird," "old smoker," and "candlestick bird."

Curlews of San Francisco

Candlestick Point and Candlestick Park stadium in San Francisco were both named after the Long-billed Curlew, the "candlestick bird," which was once numerous in the region and still winters, although in smaller numbers.

Other places within the Long-billed Curlew's breeding range are named after this avian stand-out — Curlew Lake in South Dakota and Curlew Valley in North Dakota are just a few.

Songs and Sounds

A male Long-billed Curlew stakes out a breeding territory and attracts a mate through noisy flight displays, ascending to about 30 feet on rapid wingbeats, then slowly descending in circles while whistling an onomatopoeic "curl-e-e-u-u." Listen here:

(Audio of Long-billed Curlew by Andrew Spencer, XC179484. Accessible at www.xeno-canto.org/179484)

Another commonly heard Long-billed Curlew vocalization is a call often given when a bird is alarmed, a sharp "whit-whit, whit, whit, whit, whit." Listen here:

(Audio of Long-billed Curlew by Andrew Spencer, XC189319. Accessible at www.xeno-canto.org/189319)

Breeding and Feeding

Once mated, a male curlew fashions a nest scrape, or several. He may scratch out a few, but the female chooses one final site, lining her chosen nesting place with twigs, grasses, and leaves. The scrape is often placed next to an object, such as a rock, a shrub, or even a cow dropping.

Aerial Defenders

Both parents incubate the eggs, of which there are most commonly four. Like the American Golden-Plover and Piping Plover, adult Long-billed Curlews may defend their eggs and young by feigning injury to lead away potential predators. Adults will also chase and attack intruders, including Swainson's and Ferruginous Hawks, ravens, crows, coyotes, and people.

Downy young curlews leave the nest soon after hatching. At first, both parents tend the growing chicks, but after a few weeks, the female usually leaves the brood to the male and is the first to head south for the wintering grounds.


Like many shorebirds such as the Sanderling and Ruddy Turnstone, the Long-billed Curlew often feeds in small flocks, particularly during migration and in winter. This bird's extremely long, down-curved bill is perfectly adapted for probing after deep-burrowing prey such as earthworms, mollusks, and crabs, their chief food during the winter. During the summer, this species searches the ground and low foliage for insects such as grasshoppers, beetles, and butterflies. Its unmatched bill also comes in handy for reaching down wolf spider burrows. Curlews may even prey upon the eggs and young of smaller nesting birds such as the Horned Lark.

Long-billed Curlew
Long-billed Curlew. Photo by Dennis W. Donohue/Shutterstock

Region and Range

Long-billed Curlew range map
Long Billed Curlew range. Map by Birds of the World/Cornell Lab of Ornithology.

The Long-billed Curlew breeds on the wide grasslands of the Great Plains and Great Basin of the western United States and southwestern Canada. It's one of the earliest breeding shorebirds, returning from wintering grounds by mid-March. Adults leave breeding areas by mid-July, with the young following in mid-August. This species is a short- to medium-distance migrant, moving south in flocks to winter along the U.S. West Coast, south into Mexico, Guatemala, and Honduras. Small numbers winter in Florida and along the southeastern Atlantic shore.


Once nearly wiped out by market hunting (with the sparse East Coast-wintering population yet to recover), the principal threat to the Long-billed Curlew is now habitat loss. Agricultural fields and housing developments have replaced many native grasslands, while non-native, invasive plants make some remaining habitat unsuitable for curlew nesting. Pesticide use poses another major threat to this species because these chemicals may greatly diminish food sources like grasshoppers, and perhaps directly threaten birds.

Conservation North and South

ABC is involved with a number of projects aimed at delivering full-life-cycle conservation for the Long-billed Curlew. Through the BirdScapes program, 12 focal areas were identified on the species' North American breeding grounds, where ABC promotes best management practices for these birds. ABC and partners cooperate with farmers, ranchers, and government agencies on actions to help breeding curlews and other species of concern such as the Chestnut-collared Longspur.

Long-billed-Curlew, Tim Zurowski, Shutterstock

Help support ABC's conservation mission!

Our work with Pronatura Noreste in Mexico, as well as other partners, helps protect critical wintering areas for the curlew. At the El Tokio Grassland Priority Conservation Area, where Long-billed Curlews and other grassland birds such as the Sprague's Pipit winter, the total number of acres under management has reached nearly 150,000 acres. New threats to this important curlew wintering area continue to arise, but ABC and partners stand firm in their support of this important natural area.

Get Involved

Policies enacted by the U.S. Congress and federal agencies, such as the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, have a huge impact on migratory birds. You can help shape these rules for the better by telling lawmakers to prioritize birds, bird habitat, and bird-friendly measures. To get started, visit ABC's Action Center.

Living a bird-friendly life can have an immediate impact on migratory birds in the United States. Doing so can be as easy as adding native plants to your garden, avoiding pesticides, and keeping cats indoors. To learn more, visit our Bird-Friendly Life page.

American Bird Conservancy and our Migratory Bird Joint Venture partners have improved conservation management on more than 8.5 million acres of U.S. bird habitat — an area larger than the state of Maryland — over the last ten years. That's not all: With the help of international partners, we've established a network of more than 100 areas of priority bird habitat across the Americas, helping to ensure that birds' needs are met during all stages of their lifecycles. These are monumental undertakings, requiring the support of many, and you can help by making a gift today.

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